Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how personalisation of learning resources and services can be achieved for students with and without disabilities, particularly responding to the needs of those with multiple disabilities in e-learning systems. The paper aims to introduce the ONTODAPS e-learning system which has the mechanism for such personalisation.Design/methodology/approach - This paper reviews current e-learning systems that provide personalisation for students, including their strengths and weaknesses. The paper presents personalisation and its techniques and then presents ONTODAPS which is an ontology-driven and disability-aware e-learning system which personalises learning resources and services to students. Three case studies are considered to show how personalisation is achieved using ONTODAPS.Findings - This paper shows that it is possible to use automated ontology-based agents intercommunicating to provide an effective personalisation for disabled students. The results reveal that ONTODAPS is flexible enough to provide enough control and freedom to drive their learning. The results also suggest that ONTODAPS has the ability to provide appropriate levels of learner control by allowing them to self-direct learning through personalising learning resources and then allowing them to choose which resources they wish to access. This thus gives them a sense of ownership and control.Research limitations/implications - This research reveals that it is possible for e-learning systems to personalise learning for users with multiple disabilities. Thus, by considering the needs of such users and consulting them in the design and development process, developers of e-learning systems can produce systems that are both accessible and usable to students with disabilities.
Nganji, J.T., Brayshaw, M. and Tompsett, B. (2013). Ontology-Driven Disability-Aware E-Learning Personalisation with ONTODAPS. Campus Wide Information Systems, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp. 17-34. [Link to article] [Link to PDF]
Disability legislations such as the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, 2005 and Americans with Disabilities Act 1990 call on service providers to make “reasonable adjustments” and “reasonable accommodation” respectively to their services in order to accommodate the needs of disabled people. Higher education institutions as service providers can respond through their services. Nevertheless, there is an increasing challenge in using digital media to deliver services due to the numerous problems associated with inaccessibility of some online systems with assistive/adaptive technologies. Personalisation is a solution to such problems as it provides content to students based on their needs. However, very little of such personalisation has been targeted towards disabled students and hence, this paper proposes an ontology approach for a semantic web community of agents that personalises services to disabled students in higher education. We present the architecture of such an agency, including a disability-aware semantic web agency development methodology and also present the ADOOLES ontology employed for such personalisation.
Nganji, J.T., and Brayshaw, M. (2011). Towards an Ontology-Based Community of Agents for Personalisation of Services for Disabled Students. In: Blashki, K. (Ed.). Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction (IHCI 2011), 24-26 July 2011, Rome, Italy, pp. 193-200. [Link to article PDF]