Inclusive education

  • Abstract

    Blended learning could be seen as the solution to learning resources accessibility especially when the indicators of measure are limited to distance and time. Distance and time could be said to be the generic indicators for the measure of blended learning, however, these do not solve the problem for everyone in the society. For Inclusive Blended Learning (IBL), different types of users in society should be considered in its design. This is exactly what has provoked the focus of this chapter, to investigate the position of blended learning with respect to people with disability. The chapter's investigation is centered on selected secondary schools in Cameroon and Nigeria.


    Nganji, J.T. and Nggada, S. H. (2014). Adoption of Blended Learning Technologies in Selected Secondary Schools in Cameroon and Nigeria: Challenges in Disability Inclusion. In N. Ololube (Ed.), Advancing Technology and Educational Development through Blended Learning in Emerging Economies (pp. 159-173). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4574-5.ch009. [Link to Book Chapter]

  • Abstract

    Disabled students in higher education are faced with a lot of difficulties accessing learning resources when e-learning systems are inaccessible. When instructional designers and developers of e-learning systems overlook the needs of disabled students, this leads to exclusion in what is termed disability divide. This paper reviews some disabilities encountered in higher education and assistive technologies used in accessing e-learning environments and presents disabled students’ recommendations on designing inclusive e-learning systems, obtained during the user evaluation of a disability-aware e-learning software. It is hoped that these recommendations would be adopted by designers and developers of e-learning and web-based systems so that they can meet the needs of disabled students.


    Nganji, J.T. (2012). Designing Disability-Aware E-Learning Systems: Disabled Students’ Recommendations. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Volume 48, pp. 61-70. [Link to article]

  • Abstract

    Whilst a lot of research has been carried out on designing learning environments to meet the needs of learners, much of such research has focused on producing less flexible ready-made environments for learners to interact with. However, e-learning design and development could benefit from the lessons of the interaction of users with mobile devices, where users interact by selecting applications (Apps) they are interested in and hence engage with the device in an addictive way. By transposing the same interaction idea to the e-learning environment, if given the opportunity, learners will construct an environment that meets their needs with the tools that are available and hence will be motivated to engage more with such environment, possibly leading to improved performance. This article proposes FAUCLE (Flexible and Accessible User Constructed Learning Environment), a learner-centred model for a learner-constructed learning environment. It is hoped that this paper will encourage research interest on innovative ways of designing learner-centred learning environments that encourage active and inclusive learning.



    Julius T. Nganji (2018) Towards learner-constructed e-learning environments for effective personal learning experiences, Behaviour & Information Technology, 37:7, 647-657, DOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2018.1470673

Julius T. Nganji's Profile


Julius T. Nganji, PhD

Researcher, passionate about digital accessibility & usability and improving user experience.

Adjunct Lecturer

Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy
Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto



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